Etiquetes: ainu, alaska, aleut, amèrica del nord, canadà, chukchi, eskimo, esquimal, evenki, finlàndia, greenlàndia, husky, inuit, japó, nenet, noruega, ostyak, penínsul·la de Kola, rússia, sami, samoyedo, Sibèria, suècia
Fa un parell de setmanes, vaig escriure la paraula ‘eskimo’ en una redacció d’anglès. El meu professor em va fer notar que aquest terme estava considerat políticament incorrecte, despectiu. Jo l’havia escrit perquè m’agradava com sonava, i perquè pensava que era la manera de traduir el noste ‘esquimal’, ja que és d’on prové. A més a més, en lingüística es coneix el grup de llenguatges “esquimals” d’Amèrica del Nord com ‘eskimo-aleut’ així que ne cap moment vaig sospitar de la seva manca de tacte. Això em va preocupar; era una mala manera de començar els preparatius del viatger anomenar despectivament aquells qui anaves a visitar. Es tracta -té la seva gràcia– d’un problema de terminologia i gentilicis, que ara que he començat a investigar, em supera. Us copio el què m’ha aclarit la web Dictionary.com, classificat per zones geogràfiques. Evidentment, crítiques, opinions, correccions i un llarg etcètera són més que benvingudes.
Alaska, Canadà i Grenlàndia
1.a member of an indigenous people of Greenland, northern Canada, Alaska, and northeastern Siberia, characterized by short, stocky build and light-brown complexion.
2.either of two related languages spoken by the Eskimos, one in Greenland, Canada, and northern Alaska, the other in southern Alaska and Siberia.
Compare Inuit, Yupik.Usage note The name Inuit, by which the native people of the Arctic from northern Alaska to western Greenland call themselves, has largely supplanted Eskimo in Canada and is used officially by the Canadian government. Many Inuit consider Eskimo derogatory, in part because the word was, erroneously, long thought to mean literally “eater of raw meat.” Inuit has also come to be used in a wider sense, to name all people traditionally called Eskimo, regardless of local self-designations. Nonetheless, Eskimo continues in use in all parts of the world, especially in historical and archaeological contexts and in reference to the people as a cultural and linguistic unity. The term Native American is sometimes used to include Eskimo and Aleut peoples. See also Indian.
1.a member of the Eskimo peoples inhabiting northernmost North America from northern Alaska to eastern Canada and Greenland.
2.the language of the Inuit, a member of the Eskimo-Aleut family comprising a variety of dialects.
Also called Inupik.
Usage Note: The preferred term for the native peoples of the Canadian Arctic and Greenland is now Inuit, and the use of Eskimo in referring to these peoples is often considered offensive, especially in Canada. Inuit, the plural of the Inuit word inuk, “human being,” is less exact in referring to the peoples of northern Alaska, who speak dialects of the closely related Inupiaq language, and it is inappropriate when used in reference to speakers of Yupik, the Eskimoan language branch of western Alaska and the Siberian Arctic. See Usage Note at Eskimo.
1.also, Aleutian. a member of a people native to the Aleutian Islands and the western Alaska Peninsula who are related physically and culturally to the Eskimos.
2.ahe language of the Aleuts, distantly related to Eskimo: a member of the Eskimo-Aleut family.
a. an Inuit.
b. the language of the Inuit.
Usage note: Origin: 1870–75; by ellipsis from husky dog, husky breed; cf. Newfoundland and Labrador dial. Husky a Labrador Inuit, earlier Huskemaw, Uskemaw, ult. < the same Algonquian source as Eskimo.
Noruega, Suècia, Finlàndia i penínsul·la de Kola
1.A member of a people of nomadic herding tradition inhabiting Lapland.
2.Any of the Finnic languages of the Sami.
1.Also called Laplander . A member of a Finnic people of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and adjacent regions.
2.Also called Lappish. any of the languages of the Lapps, closely related to Finnish.
Also called Sami.
1.a member of the nomadic Ugrian people living in northwestern Siberia (east of the Urals)
2.a Ugric language (related to Hungarian) spoken by the Ostyak [syn: Khanty]
1.a member of a Paleo-Asiatic people of northeastern Siberia.
2.the Chukotian language of the Chukchi people, noted for having different pronunciations for men and women.
1.a member of a Siberian people living mainly in the Yakut Autonomous Republic, Khabarovsk territory, and Evenki National District in the Russian Federation.
2.the Tungusic language spoken by the Evenki.
1.a member of a Uralic people dwelling in W Siberia and the far NE parts of European Russia.
2.Also, Samoyedic. a subfamily of Uralic languages spoken by the Samoyed people.
Usage Note Siberian Mongolian people, 1589, from Rus. samoyed, lit. “self-eaters, cannibals” (the first element cognate with Eng. same, the second with O.E. etan “to eat”). The native name is Nenets. As the name of a type of dog (once used as a working dog in the Arctic) it is attested from 1889.
1.A member of a reindeer-herding people of of extreme northwest Russia along the coast of the White, Barents, and Kara seas.
2.The Uralic language of this people.
In both senses also called Samoyed.
1.A member of an indigenous people of Japan, now inhabiting parts of Hokkaido, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands.
2.The language of the Ainu.
3.caucasoid people in Japan and eastern Russia, 1819, from Ainu, lit. “man.”
Com sol passar, el problema no tan sols no s’ha resolt si no que ha crescut. Pel què jo tinc entès, i tot i que aquest diccionari no ho recull, ‘lapó’ també és un terme inadequat, encara que no sé si despectiu i simplement inadequat. He tret el cap per la Viquipèdia i els mapes tenien tants colors i noms estranys que he decidit que el meu cap no estava preparat per resistir la invasió terminològica. Continuaré, un altre dia.